[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: Volume 8, Issue 1 (March-April 2015) ::
Educ Strategy Med Sci 2015, 8(1): 35-42 Back to browse issues page
Comparison between “Problem-Based Learning” and “Question & Answer” Educational Methods on Environmental Health Students’ Attitude to Critical Thinking
Salehi L1, Keykavousi Arani L2, Safarnavadeh M3
1- Health Education & Promotion Department, Health Faculty, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran
2- Public Health Department, Health Faculty, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran
3- Public Health Department, Health Faculty, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran , msafarnavadeh@yahoo.cim
Abstract:   (9849 Views)

 Aims: Critical thinking has the 2 aspects skill and attitude. The skill aspect will not take place without the attitude to critical thinking. The aim of this study was to compare between problem-based and question-answer learning methods on critical thinking attitude of environmental health students. 

Instrument & Methods: In this quasi-experimental study all 27 environmental health students of Alborz University of Medical Sciences were entered the study by census method. Critical thinking attitudes’ parameters were studied by the California critical thinking disposition inventory (CCTDI) before and after the intervention. The problem-based learning group (14 persons) held some scenarios for studying and investigating and question-answer group (13 persons) held 4 questioning sessions. Data were collected and analyzed by SPSS 17 using independent- and paired-T tests. 

Findings: There were no significant differences between the average of CCTDI scores for problem-based learning group before (278.00±28.14) and after (309.29±13.80) the intervention and also between the average of CCTDI scores for question-answer group before (276.00±7.12) and after (306.62±16.32) the intervention (p>0.05). Both methods caused a significant increase in analytic power, information categorization and self-confidence of students (p<0.05). 

Conclusion: Using both question-answer and problem-based educational methods can improve the attitude to critical thinking in students.

Keywords: Critical Thinking , Problem-Based Learning [MeSH], Learning [MeSH], Students [MeSH], Health Occupations [MeSH],
Full-Text [PDF 445 kb]   (1910 Downloads)    
Article Type: Original Research | Subject: New Methods of Teaching in Medical Sciences
Received: 2014/07/22 | Accepted: 2015/01/12 | Published: 2015/04/15
1. Yang YTC, Newby TJ, Bill RL. Using socratic questioning to promote critical thinking skill through asynchronous discussion forum in distance learning environments. Am J Distance Educ. 2005;19(3):163-81. [File]
2. Maleki H, Habibipour M. Developing critical thinking, the main goal of education. Q J Educ Innov. 2007; 6(19):93-108. [Persian] [Homepage]
3. Staib S. Teaching and measuring thinking. J Nurs Educ. 2003;42(11):498-508. [PubMed]
4. Bartol GM. Critical thinking. In: Kearney-Nunnery R, editor. Advancing your career: Concepts of professional nursing. 4th ed. Philadelphia: PA: F.A. Davis; 2008. pp. 56-169. [Homepage]
5. Phan HP. Critical thinking as a self-regulatory process component in teaching and learning. Psicothema. 2010;22(2):284-92. [File]
6. Profetoo-McGrath J. The relationship of critical thinking skills and critical thinking dispositions of baccalaureate nursing studnt. J Adv Nurs. 2003;43(6):569-77. [PubMed]
7. Dam G, Volman M. critical thinking as a citizenship competence: teaching strategies. Learn Instruct. 2004;14:359-79. [Homepage]
8. Sezer R. Integration of critical thinking skills into elementary school teacher education courses in mathematics. Educ. 2008;128(3):349-62. [Homepage]
9. Norris SP. Synthesis of research on critical thinking. Educ Leadership. 1985;42(4):40-5. [File]
10. Bahmani F, Yousefy AR, Nematbakhsh M, Changiz T, Mardani M. Critical thinking skills of basic sciences’ students of medical university in facing scientific texts. Iranian J Med Educ. 2005;5(2):41-6. [Homepage]
11. Ristow RS. The teaching of thinking skills: Does it improve creativity. GCT. 1998;11(2):44-6. [Homepage]
12. Ozturk C, Muslu GK, Dicle A. A comparison of problem-based and traditional education on nursing students\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\' critical thinking dispositions. Nurse Educ Today. 2008;28(5):627-32. [PubMed]
13. Zhou Q, Huang Q, Tian H. Developing student’s critical thinking by task-based learning in chemistry experiment teaching. Creative Educ. 2013;4(12A):40-5. [Homepage]
14. Iwaoka WT, Li Y, Rhee WY. Measuring gains in critical thinking in food science and human nutrition courses: the cornell critical thinking test, problem-based learning activities and student journal entries. J Food Sci Educ. 2010;9(3):68-75. [DOI]
15. Polanco R, Calderon P, Delgado F. Effect of problem based learning program on engineering student’s academic achievements, skills development and attitudes in a Mexican University. Innovations Educ Teach Int. 2004;41(2):145-55. [Homepage]
16. Chao H. The effects of PBL (Problem-Based Learning) on the meta cognition, critical thinking, and problem solving process of nursing students. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi. 2004;34(5):712-21. [PubMed]
17. Oja KJ. Using problem-based learning in the clinical setting to improve nursing students’ critical thinking: an evidence review. J Nurs Educ. 2011;50(3):145-51. [PubMed]
18. Kek MYCA, Huijser H. The power of problem-based learning in developing critical thinking skills: Preparing students for tomorrow\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s digital futures in today’s classrooms. Higher Educ Res Dev. 2011;30(3):329-41. [Homepage]
19. Kilroy DA. Problem based learning, Emerg Med J. 2004;21:411-3. [Homepage]
20. Maiorana VP. The road from rote to critical thinking. Community Rev. 1990-91;11(1-2):53-63. [Homepage]
21. Anderson G, Pire J. Conversations in Socrates Café : Scaffolding critical thinking via socratic questioning and dialogues. New Horizon Learn. 2014;11(1):1-9. [Homepage]
22. Barrow LH. A brief history of inquiry: From Dewey to standards. J Sci Teach Educ. 2006;17:265-78. [File]
23. Khanifar H. Looking again at methods and techniques’ of teaching. Tehran: Islamic Propaganda; 2002. [Persian]
24. Shaebani H. Questining methods, educational and cultural skills (Methods and Techiques of Teaching). 5th ed. Tehran: Samt Publishig; 1992. [Persian]
25. Karbalaei AR. Critical thinking and academic achievement. Medellin Colombia. 2012;17(2):121-8. [File]
26. Neville A. Problem-based learning and medical education forty years on – a review of its effects on knowledge and clinical performance. Med Princ Pract. 2009;18(1):1-9. [PubMed]
27. Tiwari A, Lai P, So M, Yuen K. A comparison of the effects of problem-based learning and lecturing on the development of students\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\' critical thinking. Med Educ. 2006;40(6):547-54. [PubMed]
28. Snyder LG, Snyder MJ. Teaching critical thinking and problem solving skills. Delta Pi Epsilon J. 2008;L(2):90-9. [File]
29. Astleitner H. Analysis of motivational orientation and learning strategies of high school business students. J Instruct Psychol. 2002;29(2):53-77. [Homepage]
30. Worrell JA, Profetto-McGrath J. Critical thinking as an outcome of context-based learning among post RN students: A literature review. Nurse Educ Today. 2007;27(5):420-26. [Science Direct]
31. Elder L, Paul R. The thinker\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s guide to analytic thinking. Dillon Beach, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking; 2007. [Homepage]
32. Khalili H, Babamohammadi H, Hajiaghajani S. The effects of two educational methods, classic and critical thinking strategies (CTS), on the stable learning of nursing students. J Semnan Uni Med Sci. 2004;5(2):53-62. [Persian] [Homepage]
33. Facione PA, Facione NC, Giancarlo CA. The disposition toward critical thinking: Its character, measurement, and relationship to critical thinking skill. Informal Logic. 2000;20(1):61-84. [Homepage]
34. Bahmanpour K. The effect of problem-solving teaching strategies on critical thinking skills, critical thinking dispositions, attitude and behavior of nursing students in Tehran Medical Science University [dissertation]. Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery: Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 2003. [Persian]
35. Şendağ S, Ferhan Odabaşı H. Effects of an online problem based learning course on content knowledge acquisition and critical thinking skills. Comput Educ. 2009;53(1):132-42. [Science Direct]
36. Hajihosseinyi M. The effect of dialogic teaching on critical thinking disposition. Procedia-Soc Behav Sci. 2012;69(24):1358-68. [Science Direct]
37. Knezic D, Wubbels T, Elbers E, Hajer M. The socratic dialogue and teacher education. Teach Teach Educ. 2010;26(4):1104-11. [Science Direct]
38. Haynes T, Bailey G. Are you and your basic business students asking the right questions?. Bus Educ Forum. 2003;57(3):33-7.
39. Stemberg RJ, Spear-Swerling L. Teaching for thinking washington (psychology in the classroom). 1st edition. DC: Amer Psychological Assn. 1996. [Homepage]
40. Facione P. Critical thinking: What it is and why it counts (Insight assessment and the California Academic Press). Millbra, CA: California Academic Press; 1992. [File]
41. Tiwari A, Chan S, Sulliva PL, Dixon AS, Tang C [Internet]. Enhancing student’s critical thinking through problem-based learning [Cited; July 9, 2014]. Centre for the enhancement of learning and teaching Hong Kong Institute of education. [File]
42. Facione NC, Facione PA. Critical thinking assessment in nursing education programs: An aggregate data analysis. 1st edition. Millbrae, CA: The California Academic Press; 1997. [Homepage]
43. Yuan H, Kunaviktikul W, Klunklin A, Williams BA. Improvement of nursing students’ critical thinking skills through problem-based learning in the People’s Republic of China: A quasi-experimental study. Nurs Health Sci. 2008;10(1):70-6. [PubMed]
44. Iurea C, Neacsu I, Safta CG, Suditu M. The study of the relation between the teaching methods and learning styles - the impact upon the Student’s Academic Conduct. Procedia-Soc Behav Sci. 2011;11:256-60. [Science Direct]
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Salehi L, Keykavousi Arani L, Safarnavadeh M. Comparison between “Problem-Based Learning” and “Question & Answer” Educational Methods on Environmental Health Students’ Attitude to Critical Thinking. Educ Strategy Med Sci. 2015; 8 (1) :35-42
URL: http://edcbmj.ir/article-1-688-en.html

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Volume 8, Issue 1 (March-April 2015) Back to browse issues page
دوماهنامه علمی- پژوهشی راهبــردهای آموزش در علوم پزشکی Education Strategies in Medical Sciences
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.07 seconds with 29 queries by YEKTAWEB 4414